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About the course

This course provides students with the opportunity for in-depth study of the concepts and processes that occur in biological systems. Students will study theory and conduct investigations in the areas of biochemistry, metabolic processes, molecular genetics, homeostasis, and population dynamics. Emphasis will be placed on the achievement of detailed knowledge and the refinement of skills needed for further study in various branches of the life sciences and related fields.

Biology University 12

Course Credit


Course Price

$ 550.00

Course Developer

My Learning Oasis

Prerequisite(s) (Text)

Grade 11 Biology, University Preparation(SBI3U)

Course Code

Department Head & Contact Information


Viswanath Sharma (

Course Type


Grade Level

Grade 12

Course Development Date

June 10th, 2021

Course Outline


Students will evaluate different biochemical techniques used in the food, pharmaceutical, and health industry. They will look at how enzymes are used in food processing, nature and synthetic enzymes. Cheese is a common example. They will investigate how cellular processes and biochemical reactions are affected by the chemical properties of molecules. Students will study the roles that compounds play in the cells of all living organisms. Students will have to explain the roles of various organelles, such as lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, internal cell membranes, ribosomes, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi bodies, in cellular processes. They will also identify common functional groups within biological molecules (e.g., hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate), and explain how they contribute to the function of each molecule. Students will study the structure of cell membranes according to the fluid mosaic model, and explain the dynamics of passive transport, facilitated diffusion, and the movement of large particles across the cell membrane by the processes of endocytosis and exocytosis

Expected Hours of Instruction: 21 hours

Metabolic Processes

Students will investigate the chemical changes and energy conversions that occur in metabolic processes. They will demonstrate the ways in which an understanding of metabolic processes enables people to make informed choices with respect to a range of personal, societal, and environmental issues. Some of the issues that will be addressed in this unit are: How do symbiotic bacteria use metabolic processes to produce biohydrogen from food waste? How are microbes used in the bioremediation of contaminated groundwater sites? What is the relationship between the position of a particular species in the food chain and the energy required to maintain that species? How does stem-cell research related to degenerative diseases use technologies to change the metabolic processes of the cells? Why is it important when changing your diet to know how the cells in your body will react to the introduction of new substances or the removal of other substances? Students will study and use appropriate terminology related to metabolism, including, but not limited to: energy carriers, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, ATP synthase, oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis, proton pump, photolysis, Calvin cycle, light and dark reactions, and cyclic and noncyclic phosphorylation. They will describe, compare, and illustrate (e.g., using flow charts) the matter and energy transformations that occur during the processes of cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) and photosynthesis, including the roles of oxygen and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 21 hours

Molecular Genetics

Students will be introduced to RNA and DNA and their relationship. They will evaluate the effect that DNA has on living things. Students will investigate how proteins control a wide variety of cellular processes. They will investigate and analyse the cell components involved in the process of protein synthesis. Students will also evaluate the steps involved in the process of protein synthesis and how genetic expression is controlled in prokaryotes and eukaryotes by regulatory proteins (e.g., the role of operons in prokaryotic cells; the mechanism of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Students will look at the social, legal, and ethical implications that are emerging because of genetic research and biotechnology. Some issues that will be discussed but are not limited to GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) for the increase of agricultural yields, as in the case of soya bean, despite the negative health implications.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 23 hours


Students will discuss the limitations on the internal conditions that organisms can tolerate when exposed to certain chemicals. They will investigate how the feedback mechanisms of the body facilitate homeostasis. Students will delve into the usage of steroids for performance enhancement or otherwise, antidepressants . Students will also explore the environmental factors that affect homeostasis and the effects of synthetic estrogen compounds released into our water systems and the effects of leaching of compounds from plastic products into soil and water. Students will look at the anatomy and physiology of the endocrine, excretory, and nervous systems, and explain how these systems interact to maintain homeostasis They will explore how reproductive hormones act in human feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis (e.g., the actions of male and female reproductive hormones on their respective body systems). They will also explore how homeostatic processes are involved in maintaining water, ionic, thermal, and acid–base equilibrium. They will further study how these processes help body systems respond to both a change in environment and the effects of medical treatments (e.g., the role of feedback mechanisms in water balance or thermoregulation; how the buffering system of blood maintains the body’s pH balance; the effect of medical treatments on the endocrine system; the effects of chemotherapy on homeostasis)

Expected Hours of Instruction: 23 hours

Population Dynamics

Students will evaluate population growth and its effect on the planet. They will analyse the current food production structures to develop a better understanding of how increased consumption of resources and production of waste is tied to population growth and results in specific stresses that affect Earth's sustainability. Students will assess technological advancements that can help to mitigate or offset the ecological footprint associated with population growth and the consumption of natural resources. To make this unit more engaging, students will explore the concepts of interaction (e.g., competition, predation, defence mechanism, symbiotic relationship, parasitic relationship) between different species. They will also explain the concept of energy transfer in a human population in terms of the flow of food energy in the production, distribution, and use of food resources

Expected Hours of Instruction: 20 hours

Final Exam
This is a proctored exam worth 30% of your final grade.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 2 hours

Total Hours; 110


The course material (class notes and necessary handouts) will be provided by the teacher.

The students will be required to have:
● Access to a library or the Internet to do research
● Access to the internet as well as electronic devices for note taking and communication for those taking the class online

Overall Curriculum Expectations

A. Scientific Investigation Skills and Career Exploration

A1 demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communicating); A2 identify and describe careers related to the fields of science under study, and describe contributions of scientists, including Canadians, to those fields.

B. Biochemistry

B1 analyse technological applications of enzymes in some industrial processes, and evaluate technological advances in the field of cellular biology;
B2 investigate the chemical structures, functions, and chemical properties of biological molecules involved in some common cellular processes and biochemical reactions;
B3 demonstrate an understanding of the structures and functions of biological molecules, and the biochemical reactions required to maintain normal cellular function.

C. Metabolic Processes

C1 analyse the role of metabolic processes in the functioning of biotic and abiotic systems, and evaluate the importance of an understanding of these processes and related technologies to personal choices made in everyday life;
C2 investigate the products of metabolic processes such as cellular respiration and photosynthesis;
C3 demonstrate an understanding of the chemical changes and energy conversions that occur in metabolic processes.

D. Molecular Genetics
D1 analyse some of the social, ethical, and legal issues associated with genetic research and biotechnology;
D2 investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell;
D3 demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture.

E. Homeostasis

E1 evaluate the impact on the human body of selected chemical substances and of environmental factors related to human activity
E2 investigate the feedback mechanisms that maintain homeostasis in living organisms;
E3 demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy and physiology of human body systems, and explain the mechanisms that enable the body to maintain homeostasis.

F. Population Dynamics

F1 analyse the relationships between population growth, personal consumption, technological development, and our ecological footprint, and assess the effectiveness of some Canadian initiatives intended to assist expanding populations;
F2 investigate the characteristics of population growth, and use models to calculate the growth of populations within an ecosystem;
F3 demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to population growth, and explain the factors that affect the growth of various populations of species.

Special Accommodations

Only Some students are able, with accommodations, to be part of a regular course curriculum and to demonstrate independent learning. These accommodations allow access to the course without any dilution of the knowledge and skills the student is expected to demonstrate. These required accommodations to facilitate the student’s learning will be identified in his or her IEP (see IEP Standards, 2000, page 11*).

It is likely that IEP for many or all courses will reflect the same accommodations. The instructions and accommodations are geared to meet the diverse needs of learners. The three types of accommodations that are going to be used are:

i) Instructional accommodations - changes in teaching/learning strategies facilitated by different styles of presentation; methods of organization; the use of technology and multimedia.
ii) Environmental accommodations - Certain classroom settings and preferential seating may benefit these students.
iii) Assessment: assessment procedures that enable the student to demonstrate his or her learning, such as Multiple Intelligence Theory, giving more time to complete tasks (see page 29 of the IEP Resource Guide, 2004, for more examples).

For students who require accommodations for only the mathematics courses, the assessment and evaluation of their achievement will be based on the appropriate course curriculum expectations and the achievement levels outlined in this document. The IEP box on the students’ Provincial Report Cards will not be checked, and no information on the provision of accommodations will be included.

* Taken from: Ministry of Education, Ontario. Extracted from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12: Science, 2008; (Pg:- 33-35) Date of extraction: Sunday, March 14, 2021

Program Considerations For English Language Learners

Students from a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. For many of these students, English is not their spoken language. They may be coming from highly sophisticated educational systems, while others may have come from regions where access to formal schooling was limited. These students offer a rich addition to the classroom experience by way of their background knowledge and experience. All teachers will assist with their English- language development. In mathematics the teachers will include appropriate adaptations and strategies in their instructions and assessments to facilitate the success of the English language learners in their classrooms. Some of these strategies and adaptations are: modification of some or all of the course expectations so that they are challenging but attainable for the learner at his or her present level of English proficiency, given the necessary support from the teacher.

Teaching/Learning Strategy

The key learning strategy at My Learning Oasis Elite Private School is Constructivism. This format facilitates learning by many techniques, most or all of which will be adopted in the classroom. The most dominant of these is group learning. The facilitator places students of different backgrounds in the same group so that they can feed off each other. Each may bring to the table a different reasoning strategy to facilitate problem-solving. Now, each student becomes a learner and a teacher at the same time, as he/she has to communicate his/her solution. This builds the students' knowledge base and by default, increases their confidence to speak in a crowd, albeit a small group at the beginning. The famous educationalist, Vygotsky, proved that by placing students in a group they function at the upper level of their zone of proximal development, each one scaffolding the other.

This strategy is further enhanced by the teacher asking leading questions as opposed to giving the answer outright, then allowing for group discussion. The students are encouraged to make connections between what they have learnt and their life experiences, then share with the group. The effect of this strategy is intrinsic motivation and learning. Each student develops an expanded appreciation of the topic at hand by seeing how it applies in different settings around the world by way of listening to their group members.

This Constructivist approach will be further accentuated by implementing “fish-bowling”. There are many ways to implement this technique. The one that will mostly be used will be by dividing up the larger problem (technical, mathematics, science, or otherwise) into smaller bits and have each student thoughtfully master one part. That student then teaches the group and facilitates a discussion reflection about the strategy (computational or otherwise) used in the solution. Each student in turn does this.

The above techniques enable students to reflect on the material learnt, make real life connections, and develop problem solving skills. One important by-product of the technique of Constructivism is that each student develops an appreciation of each other’s culture. This cultivates healthy people’s skill, which is not only important for the professional world but for life itself.

Constructivism lends itself well to students whose first language is not the language of instruction and who is new to the class. While other strategies will be used for students having difficulty with the English Language, this technique will definitely be used to enhance their English skill.

Assessment And Evaluation

At My Learning Oasis, course facilitators do not wait for a quiz or exam to determine how well a student is doing. Here, evaluation is an on-going exercise. The pedagogical techniques (refer to Teaching and Learning Strategies) used at My learning Oasis are perhaps the best techniques suited for on-going assessment, hence, they being an integral part of our delivery methodologies.

Concrete assessments are made through projects and assignments. However, the evaluation is based on “our flavor” of the Mastery Teaching technique. This ensures that the emphasis is on the quality of learning and NOT grading. Students' projects and homework will continuously be evaluated and re-evaluated with appropriate guidance to meet the school’s and Ministry’s expectations. At My Learning Oasis, we will work with the students until the projects meet a minimum of a B-grade, unless in extreme circumstances where the willful negligence of the students force lower grades. While this is a lot more taxing on the facilitator, it does not matter because My Learning Oasis is a Learner-centered institution NOT a Grade-Centered nor a Teacher-Centered institution.

Four categories of knowledge and skills are outlined in the achievement chart - knowledge and understanding, thinking, communication, and application. Student’s work is assessed and evaluated with respect to these categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories. A final grade will then be recorded for this course and if that grade is 50% or higher, a credit is granted to the student and recorded for this course. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

● For material evaluated throughout the course, seventy percent of the grade will be assigned. This portion of the grade should reflect the student's consistency in his/her level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more recent evidence of achievement.

● Thirty percent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation, which is administered towards the end of the course.

Final Exam: 30%
Grading for all course work, projects, presentation, participation, interim quizzes and exam: 70%

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