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About the course

This course enables students to deepen their understanding of chemistry through the study of organic chemistry, the structure and properties of matter, energy changes and rates of reaction, equilibrium in chemical systems, and electrochemistry. Students will further develop their problem- solving and investigation skills as they investigate chemical processes, and will refine their ability to communicate scientific information. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of chemistry in everyday life and on evaluating the impact of chemical technology on the environment.

Chemistry University 12

Course Credit

1

Course Price

$550.00

Course Developer

My Learning Oasis

Prerequisite(s) (Text)

Grade 11 Chemistry, University Preparation(SCH3U)

Course Code

Department Head & Contact Information

SCH4U

Viswanath Sharma (daro@mylearningoasis.com)

Course Type

University

Grade Level

Grade 12

Course Development Date

June 10th, 2021

Course Outline

Organic Chemistry

Students will explore how chemical and physical properties of organic compounds are determined by their respective structures. Students will learn how to use International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature conventions to identify names, write chemical formulae, and create structural formulae for the different classes of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, amines, amides, and simple aromatic compounds. They will explore their similarities and differences in name and structural formula. Students will further explore the chemical changes that occur during various types of organic chemical reactions, including substitution, addition, elimination, oxidation, esterification, and hydrolysis. They will look at isomerism in organic compounds, and how variations in the properties of isomers relate to their structural and molecular formulae.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 22 hours

Structure and Properties of Matter

Students will explore electrostatic forces and how the nature of these forces that exist between particles in a substance determines the properties and limits the uses of that substance. Students will explore the basic model of the atom. They will then venture into the electron configurations of a variety of elements in the periodic table, using the concept of energy levels in shells and subshells, as well as the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule, and the aufbau principle. They will look at the characteristic properties of elements in each of the s, p, and d blocks of the periodic table, and explain the relationship between the position of an element in the periodic table, its properties, and its electron configuration.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 20 hours

Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction

The students will explore the conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, presence of a catalyst) required to maximize the efficiency of some common natural or industrial chemical reactions (e.g., decomposition, combustion, neutralization), and explain how the improved efficiency of the reaction contributes to environmental sustainability. [AI, C] Sample issue: Bleaches such as hydrogen peroxide and chlorine are used when fibres are processed into paper or textiles. Concentrations of these substances can harm the environment, but if enzymes are added to these processes as biocatalysts, fewer chemicals are needed, less energy is consumed, and there is less environmental impact. Sample questions: How can you increase the rate of decomposition in a home composter? What can be done to improve the efficiency of an automobile that runs entirely on fossil fuels? Why is just a very small quantity of catalyst required in industrial processes? Why is the ozone layer still deteriorating despite the banning of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)?

Students thermochemical equations, expressing the energy change as a ΔH value or as a heat term in the equation. Students will be introduced to the equation and solve problems involving analysis of heat transfer in a chemical reaction, using the equation Q = mcΔT. They will also use Hess’s Law. Students will explore how various factors can slow-down or speed up a reaction (surface area for instance). In this unit, students will look at the simple potential energy diagrams of chemical reactions (e.g., the relationships between the relative energies of reactants and products and the activation energy of the reaction). They will explore how the rate of change of a simple chemical reaction (e.g., combustion) is determined by the series of elementary steps that make up the overall reaction mechanism.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 22 hours

Chemical Systems and Equilibrium

Students will explore the concept of dynamic equilibrium, using examples of physical and chemical equilibrium systems (e.g., liquid– vapour equilibrium, weak electrolytes in solution, reversible chemical reactions). Students will look at how chemical equilibrium applies to the concentration of reactants and products in a chemical reaction at equilibrium. They will be introduced to Le Châtelier’s principle and how it applies to changes to a chemical reaction at equilibrium. They will evaluate common equilibrium constants, including Keq, Ksp, Kw, Ka, Kb, and Kp, and write the expressions for each. Students will use the ionization constant of water (Kw) to calculate pH, pOH, [H3O+], and [OH– ] for chemical reactions. Students will be introduced to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. They will explore the properties of strong and weak acids, and strong and weak bases, using the concept of dynamic equilibrium. They will also explore the chemical characteristics of buffer solutions.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 22 hours

Electrochemistry

In this unit, students will look at reactions in terms of the loss and gain of electrons and the associated change in oxidation number. They will explore the components of a galvanic cell, and explain how each component functions in a redox reaction. They will look at galvanic cells in terms of oxidation and reduction half-cells whose voltages can be used to determine overall cell potential. They will look at how the hydrogen half-cell is used as a standard reference to determine the voltages of another half-cell. They will explore some applications of electrochemistry in common industrial processes (e.g., in refining metals such as aluminum and zinc; in the production of hydrogen)

Expected Hours of Instruction: 22 hours

Final Exam

This is a proctored exam worth 30% of your final grade.

Expected Hours of Instruction: 2 hours

Total Hours: 110

Resources

The course material (class notes and necessary handouts) will be provided by the teacher.

The students will be required to have:
● Access to a library or the Internet to do research
● Access to the internet as well as electronic devices for note taking and communication for those taking the class online

Overall Curriculum Expectations

A. Scientific Investigation Skills and Career Exploration

A1 demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communicating); A2 identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and identify scientists, including Canadians, who have made contributions to those fields.

B. Organic Chemistry

B1 assess the social and environmental impact of organic compounds used in everyday life, and propose a course of action to reduce the use of compounds that are harmful to human health and the environment; B2 investigate organic compounds and organic chemical reactions, and use various methods to represent the compounds;
B3 demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and chemical behaviour of compounds within each class of organic compounds.

C. Structure and Properties of Matter

C1 assess the benefits to society and evaluate the environmental impact of products and technologies that apply principles related to the structure and properties of matter;
C2 investigate the molecular shapes and physical properties of various types of matter;
C3 demonstrate an understanding of atomic structure and chemical bonding, and how they relate to the physical properties of ionic, molecular, covalent network, and metallic substances.

D. Energy Changes and Rates of Reaction

D1 analyse technologies and chemical processes that are based on energy changes, and evaluate them in terms of their efficiency and their effects on the environment;
D2 investigate and analyse energy changes and rates of reaction in physical and chemical processes, and solve related problems;
D3 demonstrate an understanding of energy changes and rates of reaction.

E. Chemical Systems and Equilibrium
E1 analyse chemical equilibrium processes, and assess their impact on biological, biochemical, and technological systems;
E2 investigate the qualitative and quantitative nature of chemical systems at equilibrium, and solve related problems;
E3 demonstrate an understanding of the concept of dynamic equilibrium and the variables that cause shifts in the equilibrium of chemical systems.

F. Electrochemistry
F1 analyse technologies and processes relating to electrochemistry, and their implications for society, health and safety, and the environment;
F2 investigate oxidation-reduction reactions using a galvanic cell, and analyse electrochemical reactions in qualitative and quantitative terms;
F3 demonstrate an understanding of the principles of oxidation-reduction reactions and the many practical applications of electrochemistry.

Special Accommodations

Only Some students are able, with accommodations, to be part of a regular course curriculum and to demonstrate independent learning. These accommodations allow access to the course without any dilution of the knowledge and skills the student is expected to demonstrate. These required accommodations to facilitate the student’s learning will be identified in his or her IEP (see IEP Standards, 2000, page 11*).

It is likely that IEP for many or all courses will reflect the same accommodations. The instructions and accommodations are geared to meet the diverse needs of learners. The three types of accommodations that are going to be used are:

i) Instructional accommodations - changes in teaching/learning strategies facilitated by different styles of presentation; methods of organization; the use of technology and multimedia.
ii) Environmental accommodations - Certain classroom settings and preferential seating may benefit these students.
iii) Assessment: assessment procedures that enable the student to demonstrate his or her learning, such as Multiple Intelligence Theory, giving more time to complete tasks (see page 29 of the IEP Resource Guide, 2004, for more examples).

For students who require accommodations for only the mathematics courses, the assessment and evaluation of their achievement will be based on the appropriate course curriculum expectations and the achievement levels outlined in this document. The IEP box on the students’ Provincial Report Cards will not be checked, and no information on the provision of accommodations will be included.

* Taken from: Ministry of Education, Ontario. Extracted from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12: Science, 2008; (Pg:- 33-35) Date of extraction: Sunday, March 14, 2021

Program Considerations For English Language Learners

Students from a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. For many of these students, English is not their spoken language. They may be coming from highly sophisticated educational systems, while others may have come from regions where access to formal schooling was limited. These students offer a rich addition to the classroom experience by way of their background knowledge and experience. All teachers will assist with their English-language development. In mathematics the teachers will include appropriate adaptations and strategies in their instructions and assessments to facilitate the success of the English language learners in their classrooms. Some of these strategies and adaptations are: modification of some or all of the course expectations so that they are challenging but attainable for the learner at his or her present level of English proficiency, given the necessary support from the teacher.

Teaching/Learning Strategy

The key learning strategy at My Learning Oasis Elite Private School is Constructivism. This format facilitates learning by many techniques, most or all of which will be adopted in the classroom. The most dominant of these is group learning. The facilitator places students of different backgrounds in the same group so that they can feed off each other. Each may bring to the table a different reasoning strategy to facilitate problem-solving. Now, each student becomes a learner and a teacher at the same time, as he/she has to communicate his/her solution. This builds the students' knowledge base and by default, increases their confidence to speak in a crowd, albeit a small group at the beginning. The famous educationalist, Vygotsky, proved that by placing students in a group they function at the upper level of their zone of proximal development, each one scaffolding the other.

Assessment And Evaluation

At My Learning Oasis, course facilitators do not wait for a quiz or exam to determine how well a student is doing. Here, evaluation is an on-going exercise. The pedagogical techniques (refer to Teaching and Learning Strategies) used at My learning Oasis are perhaps the best techniques suited for on-going assessment, hence, they being an integral part of our delivery methodologies.

Concrete assessments are made through projects and assignments. However, the evaluation is based on “our flavor” of the Mastery Teaching technique. This ensures that the emphasis is on the quality of learning and NOT grading. Students' projects and homework will continuously be evaluated and re-evaluated with appropriate guidance to meet the school’s and Ministry’s expectations. At My Learning Oasis, we will work with the students until the projects meet a minimum of a B-grade, unless in extreme circumstances where the willful negligence of the students force lower grades. While this is a lot more taxing on the facilitator, it does not matter because My Learning Oasis is a Learner-centered institution NOT a Grade-Centered nor a Teacher-Centered institution.

Four categories of knowledge and skills are outlined in the achievement chart - knowledge and understanding, thinking, communication, and application. Student’s work is assessed and evaluated with respect to these categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories. A final grade will then be recorded for this course and if that grade is 50% or higher, a credit is granted to the student and recorded for this course. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:
● For material evaluated throughout the course, seventy percent of the grade will be assigned. This portion of the grade should reflect the student's consistency in his/her level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
● Thirty percent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation, which is administered towards the end of the course

Final Exam 30%

Grading for all course work, projects, presentation, participation, interim quizzes and exams 70%

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