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About the course

This course examines interrelationships within and between Canada’s natural and human systems and how these systems interconnect with those in other parts of the world. Students will explore environmental, economic, and social geographic issues relating to topics such as transportation options, energy choices, and urban development. Students will apply the concepts of geographic thinking and the geographic inquiry process, including spatial technologies, to investigate various geographic issues and to develop possible approaches for making Canada a more sustainable place in which to live.

Issues in Canadian Geography

Course Credit


Course Price

$ 550.00

Course Developer

My Learning Oasis

Prerequisite(s) (Text)


Course Code

Department Head & Contact Information


Course Type


Grade Level


Course Development Date

June 10th, 2021

Course Outline

What Is Geography?

In this unit, students look at the tools used in the field of geography to gather, evaluate, and make conclusions on information. The step-by- step process of the inquiry is studied. Various steps of the inquiry process are explored in detail.

Expected hours of Instructions: 12 hours

Interactions in the Physical Environment

Canada being the second largest country in the world by way of area has many different regions with distinct features. In this unit students will explore those different regions and note their differences and similarities with each other. Students will explore how these regions were formed, their climate history, and landform history. This unit looks at how culture, values, economics, and other societal traits are influenced by these regions. Students will also study how interactions between Canadians and the environment are producing new challenges at home and abroad.

Expected hours of Instructions: 26 hours

Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

In this unit, students explore the connections between Canada's geographic make-up, its natural resources, its manufactured resources, and the influence they have on the Canadian industry and economy. The students will evaluate the eventual future of the Canadian economy. They will look at ways that the country can sustainably manage its resources. This unit also looks at the various sectors and their impacts on the Canadian economy. Their influence on trades between Canada and other countries are going to be addressed as well.

Expected hours of Instructions: 26 hours

Changing Populations

Canada has one of the most diverse populations, both in culture and race. This unit addresses this dynamic demography. It looks at the impact that Canada’s diverse and dynamic demography has on its economy and the rest of the world. It also delves into the trends in population, immigration, migration, urbanization, and aging and how the economy and social demands respond to them.

Expected hours of Instructions: 19 hours

Livable Communities Canada has some landmass that is not at subzero temperatures for only a short period of the year, sand some that go through the normal climatic cycle. This unit explores the challenges posed by Canadian land use and development. It looks at the factors that affect the way the land is used. Students will look at urban growth, sustainability, and the management of developing communities. Energy, transportation, and Canadian food systems are all evaluated with respect to sustainable, cost-effective growth and management.

Expected hours of Instructions: 19 hours


The final project allows students to choose from a variety of different topics or issues to explore. Students will use the geographic inquiry process to generate an inquiry question that will guide their research. They will make use of a variety of geographic skills, concepts, terms, and content to help address their inquiry question. They will communicate their research findings in a written report.

Expected hours of Instructions: 6 hours


There is a proctored final exam worth 30% of the final grade.

Expected hours of Instructions: 2 hours

Total 110 hours


Resources required by the student: Note: This course does not require or rely on any textbook.

● Access to various web resources for guided research activities
● A calculator (online or handheld)
● Writing or coloring tools and paper
● Access to voice recording or video recording tools (webcam, cell phone, etc.)
● Every student needs access to an electronic device to communicate with their teacher
● All class notes and assignments will be provided by teachers.

Overall Curriculum Expectations

A. Geographic Inquiry and Skill Development

A1 Geographic Inquiry: use the geographic inquiry process and the concepts of geographic thinking when investigating issues relating to Canadian geography
A2 Developing Transferable Skills: apply in everyday contexts skills, including spatial technology skills, developed through the investigation of Canadian geography, and identify some careers in which a background in geography might be an asset

B. Interactions in the Physical Environment

B1 The Physical Environment and Human Activities: analyse various interactions between physical processes, phenomena, and events and human activities in Canada
B2 Interrelationships between Physical Systems, Processes, and Events: analyse characteristics of various physical processes, phenomena, and events affecting Canada and their interrelationship with global physical systems
B3 The Characteristics of Canada’s Natural Environment: describe various characteristics of the natural environment and the spatial distribution of physical features in Canada, and explain the role of physical processes, phenomena, and events in shaping them

C. Managing Canada’s Resources and Industries

C1 The Sustainability of Resources: analyse impacts of resource policy, resource management, and consumer choices on resource sustainability in Canada
C2 The Development of Resources: analyse issues related to the distribution, availability, and development of natural resources in Canada from a geographic perspective
C3 Industries and Economic Development: assess the relative importance of different industrial sectors to the Canadian economy and Canada’s place in the global economy, and analyse factors that influence the location of industries in these sectors

D. Changing Populations
D1 Population Issues: analyse selected national and global population issues and their implications for Canada
D2 Immigration and Cultural Diversity: describe the diversity of Canada’s population, and assess some social, economic, political, and environmental implications of immigration and diversity for Canada
D3 Demographic Patterns and Trends: analyse patterns of population settlement and various demographic characteristics of the Canadian population

E. Livable Communities
E1 The Sustainability of Human Systems: analyse issues relating to the sustainability of human systems in Canada
E2 Impacts of Urban Growth: analyse impacts of urban growth in Canada
E3 Characteristics of Land Use in Canada: analyse characteristics of land use in various Canadian communities, and explain how some factors influence land-use patterns

Special Accommodations

Only Some students are able, with accommodations, to be part of a regular course curriculum and to demonstrate independent learning.

These accommodations allow access to the course without any dilution of the knowledge and skills the student is expected to demonstrate. These required accommodations to facilitate the student’s learning will be identified in his or her IEP (see IEP Standards, 2000, page 11*). It is likely that IEP for may or all courses will reflect the same accommodations. The instructions and accommodations are geared to meet the diverse needs of learners.

The three types of accommodations that are going to be used are:

i) Instructional accommodations - changes in teaching/learning strategies facilitated by different styles of presentation; methods of organization; the use of technology and multimedia.
ii) Environmental accommodations - Certain classroom settings and preferential seating may benefit these students.
iii) Assessment: assessment procedures that enable the student to demonstrate his or her learning, such as Multiple Intelligence Theory, giving more time to complete tasks (see page 29 of the IEP Resource Guide, 2004, for more examples).

For students who require accommodations for only the mathematics courses, the assessment and evaluation of their achievement will be based on the appropriate course curriculum expectations and the achievement levels outlined in this document. The IEP box on the students’ Provincial Report Cards will not be checked, and no information on the provision of accommodations will be included.

* Taken from: Ministry of Education, Ontario. Extracted from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10: Canadian and World Studies, 2018; Date of extraction: date: Sunday, March 14, 2021

Program Considerations For English Language Learners

Students from a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds. For many of these students, English is not their spoken language. They may be coming from highly sophisticated educational systems, while others may have come from regions where access to formal schooling was limited. These students offer a rich addition to the classroom experience by way of their background knowledge and experience. All teachers will assist with their English- language development. In mathematics the teachers will include appropriate adaptations and strategies in their instructions and assessments to facilitate the success of the English language learners in their classrooms. Some of these strategies and adaptations are: modification of some or all of the course expectations so that they are challenging but attainable for the learner at his or her present level of English proficiency, given the necessary support from the teacher.

Teaching/Learning Strategy

The key learning strategy at My Learning Oasis Elite Private School is Constructivism. This format facilitates learning by many techniques, most or all of which will be adopted in the classroom. The most dominant of these is group learning. The facilitator places students of different backgrounds in the same group so that they can feed off each other. Each may bring to the table a different reasoning strategy to facilitate problem-solving. Now, each student becomes a learner and a teacher at the same time, as he/she has to communicate his/her solution.

This builds the students' knowledge base and by default, increases their confidence to speak in a crowd, albeit a small group at the beginning. The famous educationalist, Vygotsky, proved that by placing students in a group they function at the upper level of their zone of proximal development, each one scaffolding the other. This strategy is further enhanced by the teacher asking leading questions as opposed to giving the answer outright, then allowing for group discussion. The students are encouraged to make connections between what they have learnt and their life experiences, then share with the group.

The effect of this strategy is intrinsic motivation and learning. Each student develops an expanded appreciation of the topic at hand by seeing how it applies in different settings around the world by way of listening to their group members. This Constructivist approach will be further accentuated by implementing “fish-bowling”. There are many ways to implement this technique. The one that will mostly be used will be by dividing up the larger problem (technical, mathematics, science, or otherwise) into smaller bits and have each student thoughtfully master one part. That student then teaches the group and facilitates a discussion reflection about the strategy (computational or otherwise) used in the solution. Each student in turn does this. The above techniques enable students to reflect on the material learnt, make real life connections, and develop problem solving skills.

One important by-product of the technique of Constructivism is that each student develops an appreciation of each other’s culture. This cultivates healthy people’s skill, which is not only important for the professional world but for life itself.

Constructivism lends itself well to students whose first language is not the language of instruction and who is new to the class. While other strategies will be used for students having difficulty with the English Language, this technique will definitely be used to enhance their English skill.

Assessment And Evaluation

At My Learning Oasis, course facilitators do not wait for a quiz or exam to determine how well a student is doing. Here, evaluation is an on-going exercise. The pedagogical techniques (refer to Teaching and Learning Strategies) used at My learning Oasis are perhaps the best techniques suited for on-going assessment, hence, they being an integral part of our delivery methodologies. Concrete assessments are made through projects and assignments. However, the evaluation is based on “our flavor” of the Mastery Teaching technique.

This ensures that the emphasis is on the quality of learning and NOT grading. Students' projects and homework will continuously be evaluated and re-evaluated with appropriate guidance to meet the school’s and Ministry’s expectations. At My Learning Oasis, we will work with the students until the projects meet a minimum of a B-grade, unless in extreme circumstances where the willful negligence of the students force lower grades. While this is a lot more taxing on the facilitator, it does not matter because My Learning Oasis is a Learner-centered institution NOT a Grade-Centered nor a Teacher-Centered institution.

Four categories of knowledge and skills are outlined in the achievement chart - knowledge and understanding, thinking, communication, and application. Student’s work is assessed and evaluated with respect to these categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is considered within the appropriate categories. A final grade will then be recorded for this course and if that grade is 50% or higher, a credit is granted to the student and recorded for this course. The final grade for this course will be determined as follows:

● For material evaluated throughout the course, seventy percent of the grade will be assigned. This portion of the grade should reflect the student's consistency in his/her level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should be given to more recent evidence of achievement.

● Thirty percent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation, which is administered towards the end of the course.

Final Exam 30%

Grading for all course work, projects, presentation, participation, interim quizzes and exams 70%

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